Consultant: Pilot Study on Southern Migration Routes and Mapping of Available Protection Services

International Organization for Migration




Position Title: Consultant: Pilot Study on Southern Migration Routes and Mapping of Available Protection Services

Duty Station: Home-based

Type and Duration of Contract: 4 months

Period: 01 July 2022- 01 November 2022


The Southern Africa Migration Management (SAMM) project is a European Union (EU) funded project being implemented by four United Nations agencies, International Organization for Migration (IOM), International Labor Organization (ILO), United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), in coordination with Southern Africa Member States, relevant Regional Economic Communities (RECs), stakeholders and development partners, with a purpose to improve migration management in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean region. The SAMM project collaborates with the following RECs: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC), with particular focus on the following sixteen countries in Southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Eswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

The proposed interventions under the SAMM project foresee a series of coordinated and simultaneous interventions implemented across two main thematic domains: (i) Mixed migration and (ii) Labour migration. The overall objective of the SAMM project is to improve migration management in Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean region and thereby contribute to the realisation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Of relevance to this Consultancy, SDG Target 10.7 focuses on the facilitation of orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies. The Global Compact for Migration (GCM) Objectives 6, 15 and 18 focus on expanding safe and regular migration pathways in the circular economy. The SAMM Project is addressing this evidence gap through established Flow Monitoring (FM) activities to support the availability of data related to regional migratory movements and needs of individuals passing through key transit points in the Southern Africa region. This evidence base will be further strengthened through this Southern Route Assessment which aims to create a more nuanced understanding of the migration dynamics and characteristics of migrants moving from the East and Horn of Africa along the Southern Corridor, as well as mapping of protection services that are available.


Compared to other migration corridors out of the East and Horn of Africa region, the route running from the Horn of Africa through Kenya and Tanzania towards South Africa, with Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe as main transit countries, remains largely understudied. Current and comprehensive data is largely unavailable, despite the Southern Route being one of the most dangerous and challenging migration routes on the continent. It is estimated that about 16,850 migrants travel along this route annually (MMC, 2017), but the actual number is projected to be higher, and more research is needed to better understand this route and its dynamics. Incidences such as the March 2020 death of 64 Ethiopian migrants in the back of a truck headed to South Africa, which occurred near Tete in Mozambique, further highlight the increasing and largely understudied vulnerabilities along the Southern Route.

Over the last decades, tens of thousands of migrants from the Horn of Africa have migrated through the Southern Route toward South Africa and its neighbouring countries and these movements were driven mainly by political and economic reasons. According to the 2009 report on the Southern Route, significant human rights violations take place along the way and migrants and refugees face violence, prejudice, discrimination, and abuse. The majority of these migrants have travelled by land/road and are confronted with extreme situations of vulnerabilities exploitation The migrants deal with a significant number of intermediaries along the way, and they often face high-level uncertainties including exposure to the risks of being trafficked or smuggled. The condition which is further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic resulting into closing of borders and lack or implementation of protection services and frameworks for the vulnerable migrants in the mixed flows in the region.

While other migration routes in the region have received significant international attention, the Southern route remains largely understudied despite the dangerous nature of population movements along this route. The most recent comprehensive study on Southern Route was conducted more than a decade ago. The lack of data on migration from the Horn of Africa to Southern Africa hinders the capacity of national governments, policy makers and development and humanitarian programming teams to plan, promote, and advocate evidence-based interventions that minimize risks, manage flows, and capitalize on development potentials along this route including the development and implementation of protection services to mitigate the vulnerability situation in the origin, transit and destination countries.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls upon all states to implement well-managed migration policies, and facilitate safe, orderly and regular migration. The first objective of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration – a global framework on a common approach to international migration in all its dimensions – is about improving migration data. To support the global processes, there are calls for stronger and more comprehensive data, analysis and actionable information to ensure that vulnerable groups, including migrants, are not “left behind”. This is also reinforced by the outcomes of the 2017, 2019 and 2021 Migration Dialogues for Southern Africa held in Eswatini, Namibia and Mozambique respectively. In the context of the migration routes to the South across the Southern Route, people migrate for a diverse range of reasons including conflict, violence, human rights violations, fragile economies, poor governance and unstable environments.

In the past years, IOM has been conducting systematic data collection in the countries on the dynamics of flows through the IOM’s Flow Monitoring Survey, which has a great potential to enhance collective understandings of the dynamics of mobility patterns in the region. A more comprehensive, longitudinal and route-based approach is critical to inform coordinated, sustainable and effective responses to mixed migration flows, forced migration and labour migration on the main Southern migration routes.


The main objective of the assessment is to conduct a pilot study on the driver of mixed migration flows, migratory dynamics, and available protection assistance available to migrants and refugees along the Southern Route. The assessment aims to draw an initial picture of the migratory routes utilized and their magnitude; the main congregation points for migrants moving along the Southern Routes; the identification and interviewing of Key Informants concerning the Southern Route both on the ground (e.g. migrants, local actors and authorities) as well as researchers, academics, journalists, governments etc; and the main dynamics to be researched including migrants’ vulnerabilities, and protection services available.

Specific Objectives

  1. Conduct the analysis of mobility patterns, trends, concerning the demographics and profiles of migrants moving along the Southern Route connecting the East and Horn of Africa to Southern Africa – Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
  2. Analyse the main drivers of southward migration (push and pull factors)
  3. Understand the existing and emerging routes and examining the modes of transportation utilised by the migrants in the Southern Route. Identify the challenges, dangers and vulnerabilities faced along the Southern Route including migrants’ and refugees’ vulnerability to human trafficking, smuggling, exploitation, violence and abuse and major hotspots relevant to exploitation, violence and abuse of migrants and refugees during their journey southward.
  4. Identify the protection services that are available to migrants along the Southern Route.
  5. Conduct the analysis of the gaps in protection services and consolidate relevant information to increase refugees’ and migrants’ awareness of the protection support available along the routes.
  6. Develop key recommendations and action plan to strengthen response towards addressing the incidence of mixed flows southward including appropriate protection frameworks to be instituted to reduce migrants’ and refugees’ exposure to increased levels of vulnerability along the southern route.

The method for this study will be a combination of a desk study and in-country interviews with relevant

actors and Key Informants. The prospective Consultant must outline their proposed research methodology when submitting their expression of interest. Overall, the methodology for the assessment will be agreed upon by the consultant in consultation with IOM. However, the design should employ a mixed-method approach and include:

  • Desk review
  • Virtual/face-to-face consultations with stakeholders and key informants including migrants in the origin, transit and destination countries.
  • A questionnaire may also be employed

The Consultancy will be for a period of six months (June- December 2022). The expected main activities and deliverables indicated below. The Consultant may be requested to perform other duties relevant to the completion of this assignment as may be assigned.





Prepare and submit inception report and PowerPoint presentation detailing the methodology

Inception document and PowerPoint presentation with detailed methodology, and work plan with a detailed schedule for the assignment presented to IOM

Stakeholder mapping

Mapping and identification of stakeholders, actors and key informants

Stakeholder database. Include contact details as well as the proposed schedule to conduct data collection

Literature review and development of research tools

Conduct detailed literature review and develop tools and methodology to guide the study

Literature review, research protocol, and tools


Collect and analyse data in coordination with existing IOM data collection activities

Data collection in coordination with Flow Monitoring activities, and analysis of data; preliminary report of findings

Report writing

Draft and submit a report with proposed recommendations for policy, programming and further research

Draft Report


Present draft report and recommendations to stakeholders for validation during the Workshop to be organized by UN partners (IOM, UNODC and UNHCR)

Final report and PowerPoint Presentation

  2. Education: Advanced university degree in Social Sciences, Development Studies, or Demography.
  3. Experience: A minimum of 10 years’ experience in migration management, international development, development policy, and research and analysis. Experience with research in East and/or Southern Africa is desired
  4. General skills: Demonstrated analytical skills and excellent communication and report writing skills; proficiency in Microsoft Office Suite applications (i.e. Word, Excel, PowerPoint), required

The Consultant will work under the overall supervision of the IOM Regional Project Coordinator, with technical guidance from the Regional Thematic Specialist on Protection and the Regional DTM Coordinator, with direct supervision from the Regional Migration Research Officer in IOM Pretoria. The consultant will ensure adequate consultation and engagement with UNHCR, UNODC, and other UN partners in executing his/her assignment. The Consultant will be expected to work remotely and make use of their own facilities. The Consultant will be expected to travel to certain countries along the Southern Route to undertake data collection.

  2. Engagement: The Consultant should avail themselves for at least two feedback meetings per month with the IOM team.
  3. Quality: All documents should be of professional and of quality that can be published in accordance with IOM publishing standards and guidelines.
  4. Timeliness: The Consultant should display professionalism, attend meetings on time and keep to appointments as scheduled. The Consultant should keep to the timeframe of the project.

The Consultant will receive an all-inclusive fee. The all-inclusive consultancy fee covers consultation fee, communication, travel, allowance and accommodation costs. The fees will be paid in accordance with deliverables in the following proportions:

  1. 30% upon submission and acceptance of Inception Report.
  2. 50% upon submission and acceptance of the final draft Report.
  3. 20% upon validation and submission of final validated Report.


  1. Inclusion and respect for diversity: respects and promotes individual and cultural differences; encourages diversity and inclusion wherever possible.
  2. Integrity and transparency: maintains high ethical standards and acts in a manner consistent with organizational principles/rules and standards of conduct.
  3. Professionalism: demonstrates ability to work in a composed, competent and committed manner and exercises careful judgment in meeting day-to-day challenges.

Core Competencies – behavioural indicators

  1. Teamwork: develops and promotes effective collaboration within and across units to achieve shared goals and optimize results.
  2. Delivering results: produces and delivers quality results in a service-oriented and timely manner; is action-oriented and committed to achieving agreed outcomes.
  3. Managing and sharing knowledge: continuously seeks to learn, share knowledge and innovate.
  4. Accountability: takes ownership for achieving the Organization’s priorities and assumes responsibility for own action and delegated work.
  5. Communication: encourages and contributes to clear and open communication; explains complex matters in an informative, inspiring and motivational way.

How to apply

Interested candidates are invited to submit their applications in English, with:

  1. Detailed curriculum vitae, including three referees (preferably former direct supervisors) and email addresses.
  2. Technical proposal, not more than 5 pages, comprising detailed methodology and workplan.
  3. All-inclusive financial quotation/proposal relating to this assignment in USD.
  4. Example of a writing sample.

This position is open to both national and international individual Consultants. All applications indicating the position title in the subject line must be submitted on or before 24 June 2022 via e-mail to [email protected] Please note that only shortlisted candidates will be contacted.